The 2014 Formula One Season was the 65th season of the FIA Formula One World Championship. The season saw the introduction of the more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly 1.6 litre V6 turbo charged engines, replacing the previous 2.4 litre V8 engines used in the previous season. 2014 was the first season since 1988 in which turbo charged cars are used in the sport.
After an epic season-long battle with Mercedes teammate Nico Rosberg, Lewis Hamilton won the Drivers' Championship by 67 points, though only after Rosberg suffered multiple car issues at the final race, the double-points-paying Abu Dhabi Grand Prix. Hamilton took eleven victories, while Rosberg's eleven poles gave him the Pole Position Trophy. Third in the championship, surprising nearly the entire F1 community, was Daniel Ricciardo, the only driver other than the two Mercedes drivers to win a race. Valtteri Bottas secured six podiums on his way to fourth place in the championship, while reigning World Champion Sebastian Vettel could only make it to fifth in the championship.
Mercedes won the Constructors' Championship, clinching the title at the Russian Grand Prix. The eventual gap to Red Bull-Renault was 296 points. Third-placed Williams-Mercedes saw a long-awaited return to the front of the grid, though they failed to win a race.
Jules Bianchi achieved a milestone for new 2010 teams by scoring Marussia's first points at the Monaco Grand Prix. However, he was seriously injured at the Japanese Grand Prix, suffering a diffuse axonal injury, forcing him into a critical but stable condition. Sadly, Bianchi died of his injuries nine months later on 18 July 2015, becoming the first Formula One driver to die as a result of a race accident in 21 years.
Towards the end of the season, both Caterham and Marussia entered administration, causing them to miss both the United States Grand Prix and the Brazilian Grand Prix. Marussia later folded during the latter race, while Caterham returned for the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix.
At the end of the season, 3 million fans had tuned in to spectate Formula One at the races. 20 028 tyres had been used to supply the teams for their rubber throughout the year. The cars were credited to have been able to save 30% more fuel than they had done the previous year in 2013.
Mercedes had taken a historic 16 wins throughout the season, a total of 18 pole positions. The newly made double world champion, Lewis Hamilton had taken 7 fastest laps, 495 laps led, 11 wins and 16 podiums throughout the season. This was considered to be Hamilton's "Record Year".
Teams and DriversEdit
All engines 1.6 litre V6 Turbocharged.
Teams ordered by 2013 Championship position.
Dates Drivers ConfirmedEdit
Car launch datesEdit
|Ferrari||F14 T||January 25||Online|
|Toro Rosso-Renault||STR9||January 27||Jerez|
|Force India-Mercedes||VJM07||January 28||Jerez|
|Mercedes||F1 W05||January 28||Jerez|
|Red Bull-Renault||RB10||January 28||Jerez|
- Mark Webber announced his retirement from the sport after 12 years and will race in the endurance series for Porsche, his seat in Redbull was taken by fellow Aussie Daniel Ricciardo after 2 years in Toro Rosso and his seat was taken by GP3 champion Daniil Kvyat.
- Felipe Massa announced that he was leaving Ferrari after 8 years to join Williams alongside Valtteri Bottas and Massa's seat at Ferrari was taken by former driver Kimi Raikkonen. Pastor Maldonado took Raikkonen's seat in Lotus.
- Sergio Perez left McLaren after a disappointing year and joined Force India alongside Nico Hulkenberg, who returns to the team after a year in Sauber. As a result Adrian Sutil and Paul di Resta were left without a drive, Sutil took Hulkenberg's place at Sauber and Di Resta left F1 to return to DTM. Perez's place in McLaren was taken by the 2013 Formula Renault 3.5 series champion Kevin Magnussen.
- Kamui Kobayashi returns to the sport after a year in the FIA endurance series and will drive for Caterham and will be partnered with GP2 regular Marcus Ericsson, the first Swedish driver in 23 years. Like Force India Charles Pic and Giedo van der Garde were left without drive's but took test driver roles instead at different teams. Pic at Lotus and van der Garde at Sauber.
- Sergey Sirotkin was set to become the youngest driver to join the grid at 18 years old in Sauber, however he wasn't granted his super license yet and joined the team as a test driver instead.
- André Lotterer replaces Kamui Kobayashi at Caterham for the Belgian Grand Prix; the seat was returned back to Kobayashi from the next race onwards.
- Following Jules Bianchi's accident at the Japanese Grand Prix, Alexander Rossi was entered into the Russian Grand Prix, however, he did not race.
- Marcus Ericsson left Caterham before they entered the final race: Will Stevens replaced him.
- Marussia change from Cosworth engines to Ferrari.
- Toro Rosso change engines from Ferrari to Renault.
- Williams change engines from Renault to Mercedes.
- United States Grand Prix: Both Caterham and Marussia were given special dispensation to miss both the United States Grand Prix and the Brazilian Grand Prix.
- Brazilian Grand Prix: Marussia folded, meaning they would not return for the final race of the season.
- Abu Dhabi Grand Prix: Caterham returned to the grid.
- Results of the World Motor Sport Council meeting on June 28
- Additional rule changes made on December 9
- A penalty points system will be introduced, in which if a driver accumulates more than twelve points he will be subject to a one-race ban. The number of points a driver may receive for an infringement ranges between one and three points.
- A procedure for a driver to be given a chance to give back any advantage he may have gained by leaving the track has been adopted.
- Four two-day mid-season tests are allowed. As a 'trade-off', the number of promotional days is reduced from eight to two and the young driver test is removed, in addition to a reduced amount of wind-tunnel testing and CFD work to reduce costs and to allow teams to potentially share wind tunnels.
- Testing of the new power units will be allowed in January 2014.
- For safety reasons, all personnel working on a car in a race pit stop will be required to wear head protection.
- Each driver will be provided with an extra set of tyres for use in the first 30 minutes of the first practice session to encourage teams to go out on track.
- A set of regulations are to be implemented to govern the use of the new power units. Each driver may use maximum five a season without penalty. Usage of extra power units will require the driver to begin from the pit lane. Any changes of individual elements above the permitted five will result in a ten-place grid penalty.
- No manufacturer will be allowed to homologate more than one power unit during the homologation period between 2014–2020.
- Gearboxes must last for six consecutive races, rather than the current five.
- No car may use more than 100kg of fuel for the race, monitored by the use of an FIA approved fuel flow meter.
- The pit lane speed limit, set at 60 km/h (37 mph) for practice and 100 km/h (62 mph) for the race (Melbourne, Monaco and Singapore use 60 km/h for the whole event), will be standardized at 80 km/h (50 mph) for the whole event, except for Melbourne, Monaco and Singapore, who will stay at 60 km/h.
- Driver numbers will be made permanent to the driver, and will be selected prior to the season, with number 1 reserved for the World Champion (should he choose to use it) and numbers 2 to 99 being available to the rest of the grid.
- Penalties of five seconds for minor infringements can now be handed out.
- A controversial decision was also made to award double points for the final race of the season.
- Qualifying was adjusted slightly, with the first session reduced to 18 minutes from 20 and the final session increased from 10 minutes to 12.
- A pole trophy will be awarded to the driver who takes the most pole positions over the course of the season.
- From the Singapore Grand Prix, pit-to-car radio communications involving car or driver performance will be banned.
- From the United States Grand Prix, an experimental "virtual Safety Car" system is adopted, forcing drivers to slow down in yellow-flag areas.
- Measures are to be put in place to stop the 'step' in noses being designed into cars. The tip of nose will be no more than 185 mm above the ground, in comparison to the 550 mm used in 2012 and 2013.
- A new engine, or powertrain, is to be introduced.
- The old 18,000 rpm 2.4 litre V8 normally aspirated engine will be replaced by a 15,000 rpm 1.6 litre V6 turbocharged engine.
- It will be combined with two energy recovery units; the Energy Recovery System – Heat (ERS-H), which uses exhaust gases; and the old KERS, now called the Energy Recovery System – Kinetic (ERS-K). Combined with a larger ERS battery, the systems will provide the cars with an extra 161 bhp (120 kW) for 33 seconds a lap.
- The cars are now only allowed 100 kg of fuel for the race, and cannot exceed a fuel flow rate of 100 kg/hour, which is monitored by an FIA sensor.
- Drivers must return to the pits under the car's own power and provide the minimum one litre of fuel necessary for post-race scrutineering.
- The exhausts have to exit the car angled upwards towards the rear wing, making exhaust-blown diffusers nearly impossible to use.
- The minimum weight limit has been increased to 691 kg (from 642 kg) to compensate for the heavier engine.
- Electronic control of the rear brake circuit is permitted to ensure consistent braking whilst energy is recovered.
- Cars will now have 8-speed gearboxes, with the gear ratios fixed at the beginning of the season. Changes can be made, but these will result in grid penalties being applied.
- Dummy camera pods are to be banned, to avoid teams taking advantage of their aerodynamic benefits. Front cameras have to be between 325 and 525 mm above the floor.
Details regarding the new engineEdit
- Engine: Single-turbo 1.6 litre V6. Maximum 15,000 rpm, five power units per season per driver (each engine is intended to complete 4,000km). There will be 15% fewer moving parts.
- Turbo: Unlimited size, maximum 125,000 rpm.
- Energy recovery (ERS) system: Weight must be between 20–25 kg. Max energy storage per lap: 4 MJ (2 MJ kinetic from rear axle; 2 MJ heat from exhaust). Equates to 161 bhp for 33.3 seconds a lap.
- Fuel limit: No more than 100 kg (about 140 litres) of fuel in a race with a max fuel-flow rate of 100 kg per hour, equating to 30% increase in fuel efficiency.
- Thermal efficiency: target of 40%.
New events on the calendarEdit
- The Austrian Grand Prix is set to take place at the Red Bull Ring (formerly A1 Ring and Österreichring). The event last took place in 2003.
Events not on the 2014 calendarEdit
- The Indian Grand Prix is withdrawn from the calendar ahead of moving to an early-2015 berth next season.
- The Korean Grand Prix is removed from the calendar.
- The German Grand Prix will move back to the Hockenheimring in line with the race-sharing agreement with the Nürburgring. Hockenheim was last used in 2012.
- The Spanish Grand Prix was due to be held at the Valencia Street Circuit in line with the race-sharing agreement with the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya. However, due to significant damage and disrepair to the Valencia venue, the Spanish GP is scheduled to continue at Barcelona.
- Following the installation of floodlighting at the Sakhir circuit, the Bahrain Grand Prix will be a night-race in 2014.
Round 1: Australian Grand PrixEdit
In the opening qualifying sesion of the 2014 Formula One season, Lewis Hamilton got pole on a wet track. Daniel Ricciardo in his first race for Red Bull got on the front row after just missing out by only 2 tenths.
Nico Rosberg took home the first race of the season by 26 seconds showed the domiance that the Mercedes F1 W05 would bring in the rounds that was to come. Daniel Ricciardo scored his first podium but would then later be disqualifed after "exceeded consistently the maximum allowed fuel flow of 100 kg/h". Kevin Magnussen would initally score 3rd but after the disqualifcation he moved up to 2nd with Jenson Button moving into the last step on the podium.
Round 2: Malaysian Grand PrixEdit
After the opening round in Australia, the teams travelled to Malaysia for the second round of the year. Lewis Hamilton scoring his second pole for the year from Sebastian Vettel and Nico Rosberg.
In the race it was the first 1-2 of the season for Mercedes with Lewis Hamilton taking his first win of the season which would make him go up to second in the standings while Rosberg extended the lead to eighteen points. Vettel came in third place to get his first points for the season.
Round 3: Bahrain Grand PrixEdit
The domination of the Mercedes team continued in Bahrain when another front row lockout came with Rosberg scoring the pole.
In the race it was the same result but the race wasn't smooth sailing when on Lap 40, Pastor Maldonado got into Esteban Gutiérrez sending the car into the air. The car overturned before rolling back over on its wheel with Gutiérrez uninjured and Maldonado received a five grid penalty for China and a 10 second stop-and-go penalty.
Round 4: Chinese Grand PrixEdit
It was an repeat of the Australian front row with Hamilton and Ricciardo locking the front row. Rosberg on the other hand started fourth with Vettel slotting between them.
The title race between Rosberg and Hamilton continuing in China with Hamilton taking his third win of the season with Rosberg finishing runner up. Fernando Alonso scored Ferrari first podium of the season after finishing in third. The race was shortern by a lap after the chequered flag was out a lap early with Kamui Kobayashi pass on Jules Bianchi not counting because its was on lap 55.
Round 5: Spanish Grand PrixEdit
Qualifying for the Spanish Grand Prix was a continuation with another Mercedes 1-2 on the front row before the race which became the same result. Daniel Ricciardo would take his first official podium in the race while Grosjean scored his first points for the season. But a new leader after Spain with Hamilton taking a three point lead into Monaco
Round 6: Monaco Grand PrixEdit
The tension between the two Mercedes drivers continued to come with the teams heading to Monaco for the sixth round of the season. But it didn't looked like that when Mercedes locked out the front row for the fifth consecutive time. Red Bull locked the second row of the grid while Ferrari locked the third row.
In the race it was the same result but instead of Hamilton winning the race, it was Rosberg who would take home the win and with it the championship lead. Only four drivers stayed on the lead lap with Ricciardo and Alonso being the other two drivers. But for Jules Bianchi, he would score his first points for the season and creating a little bit of history with Marussia being the first new team to score points since 2009 when Brawn scored in Australia. Caterham also got their best result with Marcus Ericsson finishing 11th.
Round 7: Canadian Grand PrixEdit
With the first of two trips to North America coming, the teams headed to the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve for the seventh round of the season. Once again it was Hamilton and Rosberg on the front row of the grid for Mercedes but the Williams pair of Valtteri Bottas and Felipe Massa was starting to gain speed and would be seen in Austria.
The race was unique because for Max Chilton his run of 25 consecutive finishes ended when he collided with Bianchi on turn four which would bring out the safety car. Ricciardo won the GP and became the first non-Mercedes driver to win a GP for 2014 and would be the only one until Hungary. The gap in the championship would extend out to 22 points when Hamilton rear brakes failed on him and he had to retire.
Round 8: Austrian Grand PrixEdit
The teams headed to Austria for the first time since 2003 with Alonso, Raikkonen, Button and Massa having experience on the track in a F1 car. For Massa it would with his only pole position of the year coming in this race. Mercedes struggled in qualifying with Rosberg (3rd) and Hamilton (9th) as Hamilton spun on his second lap after the first was deleted for using too much track. Felipe Massa scored his first pole since 2008, with Williams acheiving their first 1-2 since the 2005 Monaco Grand Prix
The result though, was the same as the first six rounds with Hamilton and Rosberg finishing 1-2 for the sixth time. The Williams drivers finishing in 3rd and 4th as they started to pick up some speed. For Rosberg this result was to extend his lead out to 29 points which would be the biggest margin until the final result in Abu Dhabi.
Round 9: British Grand PrixEdit
The teams then headed to the famous Silverstone circuit for the ninth round of the season. Susie Wolff was the first woman since Giovanna Amati in 1992 to drive in a F1 car after replacing Bottas in the Williams. She would later do another FP1 in Germany. While in qualifying it was Rosberg who would take his fourth pole of the season and tying up with Hamilton in the Pole Position Trophy.
There was confusion on the first lap as Kimi Raikkonen ran wide at Aintree, and spun heavily into the barriers before bouncing back and eliminating Massa. Due to Armco damage, the race was red flagged for an hour. Rosberg led the restart, but he could only make 28 laps in the race with a gearbox issue forcing his retirement in the race. Hamilton would go on to take the win and close the gap to four points while Bottas after finishing in second place jumped up to fifth in the standings.
Round 10: German Grand PrixEdit
As the teams headed to Germany, Rosberg changed his helmet to the fact that his nation won the FIFA World Cup. The original design was banned from FIFA after showing the World Cup trophy as it was one of the official brands of the cup. But an alternate design didn't affect him with Rosberg taking pole for the fifth time.
Nico Rosberg would later take home the victory from Bottas and Hamilton which extended the lead to 14 points heading into Hungary. This was a history making race, with the number six being used for 882nd time passing number 2 in the progress.
Round 11: Hungarian Grand PrixEdit
Hungary was the next stop in the calendar and Hamilton bad luck struck when his car caught fire because of a fuel leak which ruled him out of qualifying. Vettel capsulized on that luck, with a front row start with Rosberg who would score his sixth podium of the season.
It was the only race of the season Mercedes didn't have a car on the top two steps with Daniel Ricciardo and Fernando Alonso taking the spots. For Ricciardo this was his second career win as the gap between the two Mercedes drivers was closed to only eleven points.
Round 12: Belgian Grand PrixEdit
The teams headed into Belgium with the momentum of Ricciardo starting to sway from the Mercedes drivers. André Lotterer replaced Kobayashi in the Caterham. Lotterer wouldn't have a good weekend with a early retirement with his power unit. Alexander Rossi was also going to debut but a late change with Chilton going back in the car and Rossi dropping to free practice testing. Qualifying One was trouble with heavy rain and a hailstorm but it would clear up with Mercedes once again scoring a front row start.
In the race it was Daniel Ricciardo scoring his third victory of the season with Hamilton retiring on Lap 39 after the car was struggling for pace all during the race. For Nico Rosberg, the second place finish extended his lead out to 29 points which was also in Austria. Bottas came in third and his purple patch continued to show.
|Drivers' Championship||Constructors' Championship|
|GP||Championship leader||Lead||Championship leader||Lead|
Round 13: Italian Grand PrixEdit
The teams headed to Italy for the final European round of the season and it was Mercedes once again who took the front row with Hamilton being the pole sitter for the fifth of the season. Qualifying though was dominated by Mercedes engines with the top six all having the same engine.
The race was the exact same, but instead of the top six, it was the top four with Hamilton taking home his sixth win of the year and the first in a run of wins late into the season. Williams getting 3rd and 4th which would move them up to third in the constructors standings with Ferrari only scoring two points from Kimi Räikkönen.
Round 14: Singapore Grand PrixEdit
The teams headed to Singapore for the first of the flyaway races. Once again though, it was the Mercedes duo who locked out the front row with Red Bull behind them in third and fourth place.
After Rosberg had Electrical problems throughout the 13 laps of the race, Hamilton led the Mercedes team to another victory which was his seventh for the season. This also meant that the championship lead was now his by only three points.
Round 15: Japanese Grand PrixEdit
The lead-up to the Japanese GP was dominated by the threat of Typhoon Phanphone. Even though it was to rain on Sunday, the main issue was to get out of the country heading into the next GP at Russia.
Round 16: Russian Grand PrixEdit
Round 17: United States Grand PrixEdit
Round 18: Brazilian Grand PrixEdit
Round 19: Abu Dhabi Grand PrixEdit
Results and StandingsEdit
|Pirelli Tyres||Bahrain International Circuit||Dec 17 – Dec 19||private test|
|Jerez||Circuito de Jerez||Jan 28 – Jan 31||Kevin Magnussen||McLaren-Mercedes||1:23.276|
|Bahrain 1||Bahrain International Circuit||Feb 19 – Feb 22||Nico Rosberg||Mercedes||1:33.283|
|Bahrain 2||Feb 27 – Mar 2||Felipe Massa||Williams-Mercedes||1:33.258|
|Bahrain 3||Apr 8 – Apr 9||Nico Rosberg||Mercedes||1:35.697|
|Barcelona||Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya||May 13 – May 14||Pastor Maldonado||Lotus-Renault||1:24.871|
|Silverstone||Silverstone Circuit||Jul 8 – Jul 9||Felipe Massa||Williams-Mercedes||1:35.242|
|Abu Dhabi||Yas Marina Circuit||Nov 25 – Nov 26||Pascal Wehrlein||Mercedes||1:42.624|
|See also: 2014 Pirelli Tyre Tests|
- * Australian Grand Prix: Daniel Ricciardo (Red Bull-Renault) originally finished second, but was disqualified for consistently excessive fuel consumption. Kevin Magnussen (McLaren-Mercedes) was promoted to second and Jenson Button (McLaren-Mercedes) was promoted to third.
- † Bahrain Grand Prix: Daniel Ricciardo (Red Bull-Renault) qualified third, but had incurred a ten-place grid penalty at the previous race in Malaysia for an unsafe release at a pit stop and started 13th, promoting Valtteri Bottas (Williams-Mercedes) to third.
- ‡ Singapore Grand Prix: Nico Rosberg (Mercedes) failed to move off the grid for the formation lap due to electrical issues. He started from the pit lane and his grid slot was left unfilled.
Head to Head: Team-mate comparisonsEdit
Statistics taken after all applicable penalties
|Team mate comparisons|
Pole Position TrophyEdit
|1||6||Nico Rosberg||Mercedes||11||BHR · MON · CAN · GBR · GER · HUN ·|
BEL · JPN · USA · BRA · ABU
|2||44||Lewis Hamilton||Mercedes||7||AUS · MAS · CHN · ESP · ITA · SIN · RUS|
Super Licence penalty pointsEdit
Super Licence penalty points are handed out to drivers for illegal actions, such as causing a collision, speeding under the safety car, etc. Drivers can accrue up to twelve points before a one-race ban is implemented, and points remain on the licence for twelve months.
|1||9||Marcus Ericsson||Caterham-Renault||5||MON (2) · ITA (3)|
|13||Pastor Maldonado||Lotus-Renault||5||BHR (3) · ESP (1) · USA (1)|
|3||17||Jules Bianchi||Marussia-Ferrari||4||MAS (2) · BHR (2)|
|20||Kevin Magnussen||McLaren-Mercedes||4||MAS (2) · BEL (2)|
|5||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||Toro Rosso-Renault||3||GER (1) · USA (1+1)|
|6||8||Romain Grosjean||Lotus-Renault||2||RUS (2)|
|11||Sergio Pérez||Force India-Mercedes||2||USA (2)|
|77||Valtteri Bottas||Williams-Mercedes||2||MAS (2)|
|99||Adrian Sutil||Sauber-Ferrari||2||BHR (2)|
|10||21||Esteban Gutiérrez||Sauber-Ferrari||1||USA (1)|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 FORMULA 1. (2015, March 13). FORMULA 1® IN NUMBERS.[Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEm8xLyNP9Y
|V T E||2014 Formula One Season|
|Teams||Caterham • Ferrari • Force India • Lotus • Marussia • McLaren • Mercedes • Red Bull • Sauber • Toro Rosso • Williams|
|Engines||Ferrari • Mercedes • Renault|
|Drivers||1 Vettel • 3 Ricciardo • 4 Chilton • 6 Rosberg • 7 Räikkönen • 8 Grosjean • 9 Ericsson • 10 Kobayashi • 11 Pérez • 13 Maldonado • 14 Alonso • 17 Bianchi • 19 Massa • 20 Magnussen • 21 Gutiérrez • 22 Button • 25 Vergne • 26 Kvyat • 27 Hülkenberg • 44 Hamilton • 45 Lotterer • 77 Bottas • 99 Sutil|
|Other Drivers||Buemi • De la Rosa • Félix da Costa • Fong • Frijns • Gené • Juncadella • Ocon • Paffett • Rigon • Rossi • Sirotkin • Sørensen • Turvey • Van der Garde • Verstappen • Vandoorne • Wolff|
|Cars||CT05 • F14 T • VJM07 • E22 • MR03 • MP4-29 • F1 W05 • RB10 • C33 • STR9 • FW36|
|Races||Australia • Malaysia • Bahrain • China • Spain • Monaco • Canada • Austria • Great Britain • Germany • Hungary • Belgium • Italy • Singapore • Japan • Russia • United States • Brazil • Abu Dhabi|
|Tests||Tyre tests: 2013 • 2014 • Jerez • Bahrain: 1 • 2 • 3 • Barcelona • Silverstone • Abu Dhabi|
|See also||2013 Formula One Season • 2015 Formula One Season • Category|
|V T E||Formula One Seasons|
|1950 • 1951 • 1952 • 1953 • 1954 • 1955 • 1956 • 1957 • 1958 • 1959 • 1960 • 1961 • 1962 • 1963 • 1964 • 1965 • 1966 • 1967 • 1968 • 1969 • 1970 • 1971 • 1972 • 1973 • 1974 • 1975 • 1976 • 1977 • 1978 • 1979 • 1980 • 1981 • 1982 • 1983 • 1984 • 1985 • 1986 • 1987 • 1988 • 1989 • 1990 • 1991 • 1992 • 1993 • 1994 • 1995 • 1996 • 1997 • 1998 • 1999 • 2000 • 2001 • 2002 • 2003 • 2004 • 2005 • 2006 • 2007 • 2008 • 2009 • 2010 • 2011 • 2012 • 2013 • 2014 • 2015 • 2016 • 2017 • 2018|
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